Brief outline of Hindi grammar

  • Hindi nouns (singular-plural & masculine-feminine):
  • Hindi adjectives:
  • Hindi is a verb-final language and word-order of Hindi is SOV (Subject, Object and Verb). So, for example, the English sentence 'John eats bread' will be written as 'John bread eats' in Hindi.
  • On account of being a verb-final language, Hindi has a system of 'post-position' (as opposed to English 'pre-position'). For example, English 'the book is on the table' will be written as 'the book is the table on'.
  • Hindi has three 2nd person pronouns -- 'tU', 'tum' and 'Ap'. 'tU' is very informal and intimate, can be considered rude in formal situations (never use it with strangers). 'tum' is used among friends etc. 'Ap' is highly formal.
  • In an unmarked situation, Hindi verbs agree with the subject for number, person and gender.
  • Hindi has two grammatical genders -- masculine and feminine. All nouns are assigned gender hence all noouns are either masculine or feminine.
  • Hindi operates on two number system --singular and plural -- unlike Sanskrit which has three --singular, dual and plural