Dear Prof Levin,

The Bruce & Levin taxonomy is very exhaustive and all-encompassing in a sense that it covers almost everything available in the field of educational technology. I in fact had a very har time in looking for something that challenges this taxonomy.

Today, technology covers almost every field of human learning - from science and technoligy to art and literature; physics and mathematics to sociology and psychology. What started as an aid to facilitate learning has become a very important component in learning as well as teaching. From the perspective of a Second/Foreign language teacher, I find this taxonomy very interesting and heplful. However, some of the language teaching aides and language testing materials available present an intersting picture. I see some of these technologies as (1) mere business and (a) means of discrimination. For example, if we look at the SPEAK test administered at the U of I and the TOEFL etc. (and they use technoligy), we find that examinees proficiency in English is deremined by the 'American' standard ignoring other varieties (and ofcourse their intelligence, because intelligence is language independent) of English (such as Indian English, Singapore English, Nigerian English etc.). You are declared qualified for or disqualified from attending a 'good' institution on the basis of your performance in a particular 'variety' of English. Here, I see technology as a means of discrimination. May be we can include one more category in the taxonomy -- media for discrimination.


Avatans Kumar