Other important desktop publishing dates:
Aldus PageMaker is released for the Macintosh in July and desktop publishing is born. Because of advances in printing technology and the Macintosh WYSIWYG operating system, publishers can now arrange text into columns and headlines and move their text around the page. Users can also easily incorporate graphics into their page. Soon the days of X-acto knives and hot wax were gone forever as publishers began to create their pages on screen and print. This is also very cost effective for professional printers who no longer needed expensive typesetting, drawing and page layout equipment.
Later, in December 1986, Aldus releases the PC version of PageMaker, but by then Apple had already gained a foothold in the new desktop publishing market. The original software cost about $500.
PageMaker is based on Apple products called Mac Publisher and ReadySetGo. These programs were early paint programs that supported text. Users could cut and paste and drag text around, but desktop publishing tools that are now taken for granted, like a ruler, were not yet available.
1988 QuarkXPress is released as direct competition for Aldus PageMaker.
1990 Adobe releases Photoshop for the Mac. This photo manipulation tool was designed by Thomas Knoll in 1988. A Windows2003
version becomes available in 1993, again much later than the Mac version. Adobe and Aldus merge in 1994.
1991 I learn how to use PageMaker as a newspaper editor, my junior year of high school.
1999 Adobe releases InDesign as its "Quark Killer." PageMaker is still about $500.
The PaperGraderXPress hits the markets to the delight of writing teachers all over the world. This wand-like, wireless device reads and analyzes any type of student composition, including typed and hand-written. Teachers simply scan the paper with the wand and in a manner of seconds, the attached display shows spelling and grammar errors and a word count. Teachers decide which errors they would like to mark and the PaperGraderXPress will reprint the paper with the errors marked and grammar rules explained. This eliminates teacher-time spent making mechanics and allows more time for grading content and style. Students love the PaperGraderXPress because they no longer see cryptic teacher comments (pv, akw, frag) and they can learn more about their grammar errors. They don't like the word count because cheating on paper-length is now impossible. Teachers can assign a 300-word essay and quickly check to make sure all students have the minimum requirement.
The most unique feature of the PaperGraderXPress is the anti-plagiarism function. Before analyzing the paper, the PaperGraderXPress looks through its school assignments database and every book, periodical, and Internet site to find matching phrases. Any questionable phrases are immediately flagged for the teacher's attention and the "original" source is displayed for the teacher. This technology was first developed in 1999 by researchers at the University of California at Berkeley. They developed an Internet site, www.plagiarism.org and in two years virtually eliminated plagiarism among college campuses that subscribed to the service.