Virtual chemistry lab for acid-base titration 

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Please keep in mind these things while you do the virtual titration experiment.  (You can view this manual while you proceed the experiment by using the right side scrolling bar of the Internet browser.)
  • First, type your name. At every step, you can go back and forth and modify your experiment.
  • Step 1, choose either an acid or a base solution that you want to put in the flask and decide the concentration and volume of the solution.  If you select the "exact" button, the concentration of the solution is the value in the concentration text box - although the concentration of this solution in titration is usually unknown.  In contrast, if you select the "random" button, the concentration of the solution, which will be randomly generated by the program, may not match the value in the concentration text box. The difference between the value in the text box and the randomly generated concentration can be up to ±25%. 
  • Step 2, select a standard reagent to fill the burette.  If you have chosen an acid solution for the erlenmeyer flask in step 1, you should choose a base solution for the buret and vice versa.  It is advisable to use a similar concentration of the solution that you used in step 1, but a lot more volume than that of the solution in step 1.
  • Step 3, choose an indicator for titration.  The indicator plays an important role for determining the equivalence point. You want to choose an appropriate one using the figure showing color vs. pH of several indicators.  If you chose a strong acid and a strong base, the indicator should change its color near pH 7. For a strong acid and a weak base, the indicator should change at much less than pH 7. For a weak acid and a strong base, it should change at much greater than pH 7. For a weak acid and a weak base, it should change near 7.
  • Step 4, you now titrate the solutions by moving the scroll bar instead of opening the cork of the buret to set the drop speed of the solution from the buret.  Monitor the changes of pH value and the color of solution as well as the change of the volume of the solutions when the solution is added to the erlenmeyer flask.  When you reach the expected equivalence point, move the scroll bar to the left to reduce the drop speed of the solution; you may want to add one drop at a time to find the exact point.  When you find an equivalence point, record the volume of the solution used and add a few more drops to view the more perfect pH curve of the titration.  If you accidentally missed the equivalence point, you can perform the same experiment again by clicking the button „Restart.š
  • Step 5, view the titration curve from your data. The titration curve can be used for determining the equivalence point like an indicator.  The difference between the titration curve and an indicator is that the titration curve can show how accurately the experiment was performed Ų The steeper the slope of the titration curve at the equivalence point is, the more accurate the data are. During or after titration, you can view the titration curve. 
  • Step 6. enter the volume used in step 4 and you can compare the real value of the solution and your data. The equation to determine the concentration of the solution is 

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    titequation.gif (782 bytes)
     

Now let's start the virtual titration lab.

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