Annotated Literature Cited

Bempechat, J. (December 4, 1998). The importance of homework. (
This article from the Boston Globe archives stresses that students need to break the cycle of underachievement that seems to be prevalent in the present state of education and "hit the books."

Berkowitz, R.E. (1996). Helping with homework: a parent's guide to information problem-solving. (
This site, with its excellent bibliography, discusses the Big Six Approach to problem-solving.  It focuses on how parents can promote higher level thinking at home.

Brown, D. or horror experience? ( (Available: March 2000).
Written for a union web site, this article is the first in a two-part series about how teachers can assign meaningful homework.

Bruning, R.H., Schraw, G.J., Ronning, R.R. (1999). Cognitive psychology and instruction. (Third edition). Columbus: Prentice Hall.
The Bruning et al. text serves as a reference point for understanding cognitive psychology and its permeation through many aspects of education.

Butler, J.A. Homework. ( (Available: February 2000)
This research defines homework, points to its research-based merits, provides suggestion for appropriate and effective homework, and supplies the reader with sample homework policies.

Chase, B. (March 2000). President's viewpoint: tough and tender, please. NEA Today, p. 5.
Bob Chase, president of the NEA, discusses challenges students face that make teaching jobs difficult, particularly in urban schools.

Cody, A. (February 25, 2000). E-mail response to survey.
Ms. Amy Cody's response to an NCTE-middle query on homework.

Cooper, H. (1994). Homework research and policy: a review of literature. (
A thorough, much referenced review of available studies about homework.

Cooper, M. (February 23, 2000). E-mail response to survey.
Ms. Melissa Cooper's response to an NCTE-Middle query on homework.

DeCarlo, T. (April 2000). When good kids get bad grades. Redbook, p. 196-198.
Self-proclaimed "reassurance" that, if a student is not getting good grades, the parents do not necessarily need to worry.

Failing grades for late assignments: teaching responsibility or giving permission to fail? ( (Available: March 2000).
An archived Middle-L list discussion about how teachers handle late work.

Halseth, E. (February 23, 2000). E-mail response to survey.
Ms. Ellen Halseth's response to an NCTE-middle query on homework.

Kid Source Online. How important is homework? ( (Available: March 2000).
This source summarizes information from the U.S. Department of education regarding homework.  It is geared toward parent awareness and assistance.

McCann, T. (February 24, 2000). E-mail response survey.
Ms. Tammy McCann's response to an NCTE-middle query on homework.

North Central Regional Educational Laboratory. (1998). Four-stage model of ZPD. (
A diagram of Vygotsky's Zone of Proximal Development.

Norris, P. (February 2, 1999). How much is too much? Homework data stirs debate. (
This article discusses the increase in homework at all levels since the publication of
A Nation At Risk.

Parker, D. (March 2, 20000). E-mail response to survey.
Ms. Debbie Parker's response to an NCTE-middle query on homework.

Paulu, N. Helping your child with homework. ( (Available: March 2000).
This two-part article, made available through the U.s. Department of Education, assists parents in understanding the rationale and importance of homework, as well as how they can assist their children with it.

Reese, D. (1997). Homework: what does research say? (
This site, again targeted at parents as its audience, discusses homework, why it is a concern for parents, and what its positive effects are.

Royce, L. (August 29, 1997). Local school systems stress importance of homework. (
This site talks to teachers, students, and parents about the place of homework in their day.

Tavares, L. (January-March 1998). Changing homework habits: rethinking attitudes. (
The author of this site lists eight specific things a teacher can do to implement a successful homework policy.

Home Page | What is Dialectical Constructivism? | The Perceived Problem with Homework | Research of the Pros of Homework, Part 1 | Research of the Pros of Homework, Part 2 | Research of the Cons of Homework | Concerns Affecting Homework, Part 1 | Concerns Affecting Homework, Part 2 | Suggestions for Teachers | Conclusions