Costume design by Benois for Nijinsky as Petrushka, 1911.

Milhaud, Darius (b. Aix-en-Provence, 1892; d. Geneva, 1974). French composer and pianist. Entered Paris Conservatory 1909, studying with Gédalge, Widor, and d'Indy. Attaché at French legation, Rio de Janeiro, 1917-19, meeting Claudel, poet-diplomat, who was to write librettos for several of his works. Returned Paris 1919, becoming known as one of Les Six who owed allegiance to Satie and Cocteau. Left France 1940, settling in USA, teaching at Mills College, Oakland, California, 1940-71 and in summers at Aspen, Colorado. Also taught at Paris Conservatory 1947-71. Dominating feature of his music is use of polytonality. Experimented with many instrumental combinations.

Monteux, Pierre (b. Paris, 1875; d. Hancock, Maine, 1964). French-born conductor (Amer. cit. 1942). Studied violin at Paris Conservatory. Played viola in orchestra of Paris Opéra (was principal viola at first performance of Pelléas et Mélisandre, 1902. Early years as conductor with Diaghilev's Ballet Russe in Paris, when he conducted first performances of Petruchka (1911), Rite of Spring (1913), Jeux (1913) and Daphnis et Chloe (1912). Conducted Paris Opéra, including first performance of The Nightingale.

Montéclair, Michel Pignolet de (b. Andelot, 1667; d. Aumont, 1737). French composer, teacher , and double-bass player. From 1699 double bass player at Paris Opéra. Wrote opera-ballet Les Festes de l'Été, 1716, and other stage works; cantatas, motets, trio sonatas, etc., and a violin method.

Moussorgsky, Modest (Petrovich) (b. Karevo, Pskov, 1839; d St Petersburg, 1881). Russians composer. He was one of the group of 5 Russian composers of nationalist tendencies known as the "Mighty handful." In 1857 he met Balakirev in St. Petersburg and studied with him. In 1868 began to work on Boris Godunov, which he revised when it was rejected by the Imperial Theater. On its production in 1874 it was liked by the audience, but disliked by musicians, who resented its unconventional methods and unusual style in which speech-inflection governed the vocal lines. After his death which resulted of heavy drinking, his works were revised and completed by Rimsky-Korsakov and others. In the 20th century his talent was recognized and his original scores have been restored where possible.


Nabokov, Nicolai (Nicolas) (b. Lubcha, near Minsk, 1903; d. New York, 1978). Russian-born composer (American citizen 1939). Studied in Yalta, 191-20, and at Stuttgart Academy of Music, 1920-21, Berlin Hochschule für Musik (with Busoni), 1921-23, and Sorbonne, 1923-26. Lived in Paris and Germany, 1926-33. Ballet-oratorio Ode produced by Diaghilev's ballet co., 1928. Settled in USA 193, teaching at various colleges and universities. Worked for US Government in Berlin 1945-47. Wrote operas, ballets, orchestral and choral works.