Costume design by Benois for Nijinsky as Petrushka,
Milhaud, Darius (b. Aix-en-Provence, 1892; d.
Geneva, 1974). French composer and pianist. Entered Paris Conservatory
1909, studying with Gédalge, Widor, and d'Indy. Attaché at French legation,
Rio de Janeiro, 1917-19, meeting Claudel, poet-diplomat, who was to write
librettos for several of his works. Returned Paris 1919, becoming known
as one of Les Six who owed allegiance to Satie
and Cocteau. Left France 1940, settling in USA, teaching at Mills College,
Oakland, California, 1940-71 and in summers at Aspen, Colorado. Also taught
at Paris Conservatory 1947-71. Dominating feature of his music is use of
polytonality. Experimented with many instrumental combinations.
Monteux, Pierre (b. Paris, 1875; d. Hancock,
Maine, 1964). French-born conductor (Amer. cit. 1942). Studied violin at
Paris Conservatory. Played viola in orchestra of Paris Opéra (was principal
viola at first performance of Pelléas et Mélisandre, 1902. Early
years as conductor with Diaghilev's Ballet Russe in Paris, when he conducted
first performances of Petruchka (1911), Rite of Spring (1913),
Jeux (1913) and Daphnis et Chloe (1912). Conducted Paris
Opéra, including first performance of The Nightingale.
Montéclair, Michel Pignolet de (b. Andelot,
1667; d. Aumont, 1737). French composer, teacher , and double-bass player.
From 1699 double bass player at Paris Opéra. Wrote opera-ballet Les
Festes de l'Été, 1716, and other stage works; cantatas, motets, trio
sonatas, etc., and a violin method.
Moussorgsky, Modest (Petrovich) (b. Karevo,
Pskov, 1839; d St Petersburg, 1881). Russians composer. He was one of the
group of 5 Russian composers of nationalist tendencies known as the "Mighty
handful." In 1857 he met Balakirev
in St. Petersburg and studied with him. In 1868 began to work on Boris
Godunov, which he revised when it was rejected by the Imperial Theater.
On its production in 1874 it was liked by the audience, but disliked by
musicians, who resented its unconventional methods and unusual style in
which speech-inflection governed the vocal lines. After his death
which resulted of heavy drinking, his works were revised and completed
by Rimsky-Korsakov and others. In the
20th century his talent was recognized and his original scores have been
restored where possible.
Nabokov, Nicolai (Nicolas) (b. Lubcha, near Minsk,
1903; d. New York, 1978). Russian-born composer (American citizen 1939).
Studied in Yalta, 191-20, and at Stuttgart Academy of Music, 1920-21, Berlin
Hochschule für Musik (with Busoni), 1921-23, and Sorbonne, 1923-26. Lived
in Paris and Germany, 1926-33. Ballet-oratorio Ode produced by Diaghilev's
ballet co., 1928. Settled in USA 193, teaching at various colleges and
universities. Worked for US Government in Berlin 1945-47. Wrote operas,
ballets, orchestral and choral works.